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CLICK VERSUS TAP [1,1]: Digital Outlook for Mobile & Smartphone Use Among: Women in India, 2022

ABSTRACT:


It wasn't long ago when we sat down to research mobile and smartphone usage among women in India. Although there are newer studies and reports being published, when it came to rural India, data became a little more abstract, and we found global data far easier than Women Specific Data in Rural India. This is not to say that there are no smartphone or mobile phone users in Tier I, II, & II Cities in India. In fact, the proliferation of smartphones is so deep, that one can, in theory, categorise villages among various data points and data sets. However, what we found was nonetheless fascinating, and something we thought would be worth sharing. If this inspires a grass-root level study for Mobile & Smartphone Usage in Periphery India, we think that entrepreneurs and innovators can make better strategic decisions based on accurate, and new findings, so that Smartphone Usage in Rural India goes beyond the Call, Message, Camera & Payment that has become standardised to a large extent across our nation.


With that said, we have a table of contents you can use to navigate, and reference links at the end of each section if you'd like to delve deeper into the subject. The contrast between Tier III, Tier II, Tier I and Metropolises of India, and contrast between categories of smartphone & 3G/4G proliferation in India, could give rise to a whole new field of study, and opportunities for those looking to make a positive impact in Rural India. This study is summarised for: Data with Regards to Women. We certainly hope to continue this series and expand into other interesting data sets and research which can give rise to newer levels of entrepreneurship and prosperity across the length and breadth of our great nation.


Please do comment or write to us if you enjoyed this article, or if you found any discrepancies which you think we ought to update.


Thank you, we hope you enjoy our findings.


Sincerely,

Debunk Marketing Agency


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DEMOGRAPHIC BREAKDOWN OF DIGITAL USE AMONG: WOMEN


TOTAL FERTILITY RATE


of the world is estimated at 2.43 children per woman, which is above the global average for the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.33; meaning the world's population is growing. However, world population growth is unevenly distributed, with the total fertility rate ranging from one of the world's lowest 0.83 in Singapore, to the highest, 6.49 in Niger.


MOBILE USAGE


1. 7.26 billion people have mobile phones in the world today, which constitutes 91.54% of the world population. Out of these, 83.72% of

the people (6.64 billion people) own smartphones.; and the rest own keypad phones (a basic handset). Out of these 6.64 billion

people who own smartphones, 3.25 billion people are women.


2. Across all low and middle-income countries, 80 percent of women are mobile owners, while in India, only 59 per cent use mobile

phones, representing some of the largest mobile gender gaps in the world.


DEMOGRAPHICS & STATISTICS ABOUT WOMEN IN THE GLOBAL CONTEXT [CONSUMER SHARE]


→ The female population of the world - 49.6% (as of 2021)


According to the 2021 CIA World Factbook [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_World_Factbook], around 25% of the world's population is below 15 years of age.


0–14 years: 25.2% (male 1,010,373,278/female 946,624,579)

15–64 years: 65.1% (male 2,562,946,384/female 2,498,562,457)

65 years and over: 9.7% (male 337,244,947/female 415,884,753) (2021 est.)

Median Age – 31 years (male: 30.3 years, female: 31.8 years, 2021 est.)


The country with the highest birth rate currently is Niger at 51.26 births per 1000 people.

The country with the lowest birth rate is Japan at 7.64 births per 1000 people.

Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region of China, is at 7.42 births per 1000 people.

In Europe, as of July 2011, Ireland's birth rate is 16.5 percent, which is 3.5 percent higher than the next-ranked country, the UK.

France has a birth rate of 12.8 percent while Sweden is at 12.3 percent.

The birth rate in Germany is only 8.3 per 1,000.


[Reference Links: Reference used -

https://www.statista.com/statistics/241488/population-of-the-us-by-sex-and-age/

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.2024.FE.5Y

https://www.who.int/data/maternal-newborn-child-adolescent-ageing/indicator-explorer-new/mca/women-of-reproductive-age-(15-49-years)-population-(thousands)

https://censusindia.gov.in/census_and_you/age_structure_and_marital_status.aspx

https://www.marchofdimes.org/peristats/data?reg=99&top=14&stop=125&lev=1&slev=1&obj=3

https://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?DataSetCode=RPOP

https://www.jstor.org/stable/1250933?seq=1

https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/world-population-gender-age.php

]



VALIDITY OF A DIGITAL SOLUTION IN PERIPHERAL AREAS


WOMEN USING MOBILE PHONES: 2015-16 VS 2019-20
WOMEN USING MOBILE PHONES: BY STATE - 2015-16 VS 2019-20


DIGITAL OUTLOOK: CURRENT MOBILE INTERNET USEAGE AMONG WOMEN IN MIDDLE TO LOW INCOME COUNTRIES


Women’s access to mobile internet continues to increase across low- and middle-income countries, while mobile ownership remains relatively flat:

83 percent of women own a mobile phone and 58 percent use mobile internet.

Women are also more likely than men to access the internet exclusively on a mobile handset in most of the countries surveyed, which highlights the importance of both increasing mobile access for women, as well as reducing the mobile gender gap.


The gender gap in mobile internet use continues to reduce, with women in low- and middle-income countries 15 per cent less likely to use it than men.


This reduction has been driven primarily by South Asia where it decreased significantly from 50 per cent in 2019 to 36 per cent in 2020. For the first time, the gender gap in mobile internet use in South Asia is now on par with Sub-Saharan Africa, where the gender gap remains largely unchanged. Across low- and middle- income countries there are still 234 million fewer women than men accessing mobile internet.



While the overall gender gap in mobile ownership remains largely unchanged since 2017, the gender gap in smartphone ownership has reduced for the first time since then, driven by South Asia where these gaps have consistently been widest. Across low- and middle-income countries, women are now seven per cent less likely to own a mobile phone, which translates into 143 million fewer women mobile owners than men. Women are also 15 per cent less likely to own a smartphone than men, down from 20 per cent in 2019. While COVID-19 restrictions and lockdowns have increased the need for connectivity, in some countries, there are early signs that the pandemic may be disproportionately negatively impacting women’s handset ownership.


USAGE OF MOBILE PHONES AMONG WOMEN:


ACTIVITIES:


Mobile owners are using their phones for a wider range of activities, with notable increases in the use of mobile internet for video calls, listening to music and watching videos. However, there is a persistent gender gap, with female mobile owners using a narrower range of mobile services than male owners. Encouragingly, across the countries surveyed, female smartphone owners are almost on par with male owners in terms of mobile internet adoption and the range of mobile services they use.


INTERNET USAGE:


The gender gap in awareness of mobile internet continues to reduce across all countries surveyed, with awareness continuing to increase for both men and women.


Mobile users who are aware of mobile internet but do not use it report that the main barriers to use are a lack of literacy and digital skills and affordability, particularly the cost of an internet-enabled handset. Handset affordability is also a key barrier to mobile ownership


UTILIZING SMARTPHONE FEATURES:


Female mobile users feel less able than male users to learn a new activity on a phone by themselves. However, once they have done a task, their confidence in being able to do it again is almost on par with male users


Women in India are 28 per cent less likely than men to own a mobile phone and 56 per cent less likely than men to use mobile Internet.


Across all low and middle-income countries, 80 percent of women are mobile owners, while in India, only 59 per cent use mobile phones, representing some of the largest mobile gender gaps in the world.


The icons and easily identifiable resources have helped many illiterate and non-tech savvy women communicate with their husbands and family/friends. Like, a phone icon guides them and communicates to them that it is where they have to go to call someone. They cannot read the word “phone” under the icon, and just look at the icon for meaning. Inside the phone app, to call a person, she just clicks on that persons picture, and the call connects to them (instead of reading the person’s name)


GLOBAL CONTEXT:


Bangladesh’s gender gap in mobile ownership stood at 24 percent and 41 per cent in mobile usage. Pakistan’s gender gaps were even higher at 34 per cent for mobile ownership and 43 per cent for mobile usage. Despite the mobile ownership gap reducing from 26 per cent to 19 per cent, and the mobile internet use gap from 67 per cent to 36 per cent, between 2017 and 2020, South Asia continues to have the widest mobile gender gaps globally.


WOMEN'S MOBILE USAGE IN A SOCIAL CONTEXT: TRENDS IN RURAL INDIA


Women’s online activity is often governed by male relatives. While mobile phones are viewed as a risk to women’s reputation pre-marriage; post-marriage phone use is viewed as an interruption to caregiving responsibilities.


Women generally refrain from speaking on/using their phones in public places, preferring to conduct their conversation, usage of private apps within the home, owing to prevailing social norms and fear of judgment.




[VALIDITY OF A DIGITAL SOLUTION IN PERIPHERAL AREAS

Reference used -

https://www.business-standard.com/article/politics/indian-women-less-likely-than-men-to-own-a-mobile-but-are-catching-up-121020700857_1.html

https://www.dvara.com/research/blog/2021/06/15/womens-mobile-phone-access-and-use-a-snapshot-of-six-states-in-india/

https://www.orfonline.org/expert-speak/indias-gendered-digital-divide/

https://www.wired.com/story/india-smartphones-cheap-data-giving-women-voice/

https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/cons-products/electronics/india-to-have-1-billion-smartphone-users-by-2026-deloitte/articleshow/89750324.cms

https://www.bgr.in/news/only-30-percent-internet-users-in-india-are-women-iamai-report-579815/

]


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